The Influence of the Norman Conquest on Anglo-Saxon Garden Design

The Anglo-Saxon way of life was dramatically changed by the arrival of the Normans in the later eleventh century. At the time of the conquest, the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons in building design and cultivation. 115447-11603__61861.jpg However, there was no time for home life, domestic design, and adornment until the Normans had conquered the whole realm. Castles were more fundamental designs and often erected on blustery hills, where their tenants spent both time and space to practicing offense and defense, while monasteries were considerable stone buildings, commonly positioned in the widest, most fertile hollows. The tranquil method of gardening was impractical in these bleak bastions. The early Anglo-Norman style of architecture is symbolized in Berkeley Castle, which is conceivably the most untouched example we have. The keep is said to date from the time of William the Conqueror. A spacious terrace meant for exercising and as a way to stop enemies from mining under the walls runs around the building. A scenic bowling green, covered in grass and enclosed by battlements clipped out of an ancient yew hedge, forms one of the terraces.

The Newest Addition to the Gardens of Chatsworth: "Revelation" Fountain

Created by well-known English sculptor Angela Conner, Revelation is the latest addition to the Chatsworth ornamental outdoor water fountains. In celebration of the Queen’s 80th birthday celebration, she was mandated by the late 11th Duke of Devonshire to make a limited edition bust of Queen Elizabeth designed of brass and steel in 2004. One of Chatsworth’s oldest ponds, Jack Pond, had “Revelation” installed in it in 1999. Alternatively camouflaging and exposing a gold colored globe at the sculpture’s center, the steel fountain takes on the shape of four large petals which open and close with the circulation of water. A gold dust decorated metal globe was manufactured and incorporated into the big sculpture standing five meters in height and five meters in width. This most recent fountain is an intriguing addition to the Gardens at Chatsworth because the petals’ motion is totally run by water.

Visit the World’s Biggest Water Fountains

Located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, the King Fahd Fountain (1985) is the tallest continually-functioning fountain worldwide. It propels water reaching 260 meters (853 feet) above the Red Sea.

Reaching water levels of 202 meters (663 feet), the World Cup Fountain in the Han-Gang River in Seoul, Korea (2002), is recognized as the 2nd highest worldwide.

Located near the Mississippi River in St. Louis, Missouri, is 3rd placed Gateway Geyser (1995). It propels water 192 meters (630 feet) into the air and is currently the tallest fountain in the United States.

Next is the fountain found in Karachi, Pakistan (Port Fountain) which jets water up to 190 meters (620 feet) in height.

Number 4: On a typical day the water is limited to 91 meters (300 feet) at the Fountain Park feature in Fountain Hills, Arizona, but it is capable of pushing water up to 171 meters (561 feet) when all three pumps are operating.

The Dubai Fountain made its first appearance in 2009 next to the tallest building in the world, the Burj Khalifa. It performs every 1/2 hour to previously recorded music and propels water up to 73 meters (240 feet) in height -it also has built in extreme shooters, though only used during special events, which reach 150 meters (490 feet) in height.

Constructed in 1970, the Captain James Cook Memorial Jet in Canberra, Australia, comes in at #7 shooting water up to 147 meters (482 feet).

And finally comes the Jet d'eau, in Geneva (1951) which measures 140 meters (460 feet) in height.

Contemporary Sculpture in Historic Greece

Most sculptors were remunerated by the temples to accentuate the intricate columns and archways with renderings of the gods up until the stage came to a close and many Greeks began to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred, when it became more typical for sculptors to represent everyday men and women as well. Portraiture came to be commonplace as well, and would be embraced by the Romans when they defeated the Greeks, and sometimes well-off families would order a representation of their progenitors to be placed inside their grand familial tombs. It is wrong to state that the arts had one function throughout The Classical Greek period, a time of innovative advancement during which the usage of sculpture and other art forms evolved. Greek sculpture is probably appealing to us today seeing that it was an avant-garde experiment in the ancient world, so it does not make a difference whether or not its original purpose was religious zeal or artistic pleasure.

Gian Bernini's Outdoor Fountains

In Rome’s city center, there are countless famous public fountains. Pretty much all of them were designed, designed and constructed by one of the finest sculptors and designers of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. His skills as a water fountain developer and also as a city architect, are visible all through the roads of Rome. Bernini's father, a renowned Florentine sculptor, mentored his young son, and they ultimately moved to Rome, in order to fully express their art, primarily in the form of public water fountains and water features. The young Bernini earned praise from Popes and relevant artists alike, and was an diligent worker. At the beginning he was renowned for his sculptural expertise. Most famously in the Vatican, he utilized a base of expertise in historical Greek architecture and melded it effortlessly with Roman marble. He was affected by many a great artists, however, Michelangelo had the biggest impact on his work.


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